Citations

[1] Throughout this document, the term “active transportation” is used to mean any method of travel that is human-powered, including without limitation walking, bicycling, in-line skating, skateboarding, scootering, or using a wheelchair.

[2] See, e.g., Sibley BA and Etnier JL. “The Relationship between Physical Activity and Cognition in Children: A Meta-Analysis.” Pediatric Exercise Science, 15: 243-256, 2003. http://peandhealth.wikispaces.com/file/view/Sibley+and+Etnier+2003.pdf; Pedroso M, Bogli J, Speer M, et al. Getting Students Active through Safe Routes to School: Policies and Action Steps for Education Policymakers and Professionals. Safe Routes to School National Partnership, 2010. www.saferoutespartnership.org/sites/default/files/pdf/EducatorsGuide_0.pdf; Trost SG. Active Education: Physical Education, Physical Activity and Academic Performance. San Diego, CA: Active Living Research, 2009. www.activelivingresearch.org/files/ALR_Brief_ActiveEducation_Summer2009.pdf

[3] Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RC, et al. “A Potential Decline in Life Expectancy in the United States in the 21st Century.” New England Journal of Medicine, 352(11): 1138-1145, 2005. www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsr043743#t=article

[4] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. “Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Midcourse Report: Strategies to Increase Physical Activity among Youth.” 2013. http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/midcourse/pag-mid-course-report-final.pdf

[5] “2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS),” U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. (January 2010). http://nhts.ornl.gov/publications.shtml

[6] Singh A, Uijtdewilligen L, Twisk JWR, etal. “Physical Activity and Performance at School: A Systemic Review of the Literature Including a Methodological Quality Assessment.” Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 166(1): 49-55, 2012. http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1107683

[7] Church TS, Thomas DM, Tudor-Locke C, et al. “Trends over 5 Decades in U.S. Occupation-Related Physical Activity and Their Associations with Obesity.PLoS ONE, 6(5): e19657, 2011. www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019657;  Ogden CL, Carroll MD, and Flegal KM. “High Body Mass Index for Age Among US Children and Adolescents, 2003-2006.” Journal of the American Medical Association, 299(20): 2401-2405, 2008. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1028638 ; Goran MI, Reynolds KD, and Lindquist CH. “Role of Physical Activity in the Prevention of Obesity in Children.” International Journal of Obesity. 23(Suppl 3): S18-S33, 1999. www-hsc.usc.edu/~goran/PDF%20papers/R22.pdf

[8] Davison KK, Werder, JL and Lawson CT. “Children’s Active Commuting to School: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.” Preventing Chronic Disease, 5(3): 1-11, 2008. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2483568/pdf/PCD53A100.pdf

[9] Active Living Research. Walking and Biking to School, Physical Activity and Health Outcomes. May 2009. Available at: http://activelivingresearch.org/walking-and-biking-school-physical-activity-and-health-outcomes

[10] Geier AB, Foster GD, Womble LG, et al. “The Relationship between Relative Weight and School Attendance Among Elementary Schoolchildren. Obesity, 15(8): 2157-61, 2007.

[11] See, e.g., Sibley, B & Etnier, J. “The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Cognition in Children: A Meta-Analysis.” Pediatric Exercise Science, 15: 243-256, 2003; Safe Routes to School National Partnership. Getting Students Active through Safe Routes to School: Policies and Action Steps for Education Policymakers and Professionals. June 2010, pp. 6-12. www.saferoutespartnership.org/media/file/EducatorsGuide.pdf; see also Active Living Research. Active Education: Physical Education, Physical Activity and Academic Performance. 2009. http://activelivingresearch.org/active-education-physical-education-physical-activity-and-academic-performance

[12] Martinez-Gomez D, Ruiz JR, Gomez-Martinez S, et al. “Active Commuting to School and Cognitive Performance in Adolescents.” Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 165(4): 300-305, 2010. http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=384475

[13] Marshall WE and Garrick NW. “Evidence on Why Bike-Friendly Cities Are Safer for All Road Users.” Environmental Practice, 13(1): 16-27, 2011; Jacobsen PL. “Safety in Numbers: More Walkers and Bicyclists, Safer Walking and Bicycling.” Injury Prevention, 9(3): 205-209, 2003.

[14] Dimaggio C and Li G. “Effectiveness of a Safe Routes to School Program in Preventing School-Aged Pedestrian Injury.” Pediatrics, 131(2): 290-296, 2013.

[15] US Environmental Protection Agency. Climate Change – What You Can Do. www.epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/road.html

[16] Brandt SJ, Perez L, Künzli N,  et al. “Costs of Childhood Asthma Due to Traffic-Related Pollution in Two California Communities.” European Respiratory Journal, 40(2): 363-370, 2012.

[17] McDonald N, Brown A, Marchetti L, et al. “U.S. School Travel, 2009: An Assessment of Trends.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 41(2): 146-151, 2011. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379711002637; U.S. Department of Transportation. National Household Travel Survey: Congestion - Who is Traveling in the Peak? Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Transportation. August, 2007, p. 1 (finding that 10.8% of peak commute traffic is due to school drop-offs after which the parent or driver does not continue on to work or another destination). http://financecommission.dot.gov/Documents/NHTS%20Fact%20Sheet%20on%20Congestion%20and%20Peak%20Travelers.pdf

[18] Powell L, Slater S, and Chalupka F. “The Relationship between Community Physical Activity Settings and Race, Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status.” Evidence-Based Preventive Medicine, 1(2): 135–44, 2004. www.impacteen.org/journal_pub/pub_PDFs/EBPM-1-2-Powell%20et%20al1.pdf

[19] Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson MC, Page P, et al. “Inequality in the Built Environment Underlies Key Health Disparities in Physical Activity and Obesity.” Pediatrics, 117(2): 417–24, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/117/2/417.full.pdf+html.  (finding in nationally representative study that “all major categories of [physical activity]-related resources are distributed inequitably, with high-minority, low-educated neighborhoods at a strong disadvantage. In addition, this inequitable distribution is significantly associated with subsequent disparities in health-related behaviors and obesity measured at the individual level.”).

[20] Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson M, Page P, et al. “Inequality in the Built Environment Underlies Key Health Disparities in Physical Activity and Obesity.” Pediatrics, 117(2): 417–24, 2006; Powell L, Slater S and Chalupka F. “The Relationship between Community Physical Activity Settings and Race, Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status.” Evidence-Based Preventive Medicine, 1(2): 135–44, 2004; see also Playing Smart: Maximizing the Potential of School and Community Property through Joint Use Agreements. ChangeLab Solutions and KaBoom!  2012. http://changelabsolutions.org/sites/default/files/Playing_Smart-National_Joint_Use_Toolkit_Updated_20120517_0.pdf

[21] Bridging the Gap. “Income Disparities in Street Features that Encourage Walking.”  2012.  www.bridgingthegapresearch.org/_asset/02fpi3/btg_street_walkability_FINAL_03-09-12.pdf

[22] Patrick Morency, Lise Gauvin, Céline Plante, Michel Fournier, and Catherine Morency.  (2012). “Neighborhood Social Inequalities in Road Traffic Injuries: The Influence of Traffic Volume and Road Design.”  American Journal of Public Health, 102(6): 1112-1119, 2012. http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300528

[23] Chomitz VR, Slining MM, McGowan RT, et al. “Is There a Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement? Positive Results from Public School Children in Northeastern United States.” Journal of School Health, 79: 30-37, 2009. http://extension.oregonstate.edu/physicalactivity/sites/default/files/Fit_kids_are_smart_kids.pdf

[24] Mahar MT, Murphy SK, Rowe DA, et al. “Effects of a Classroom-Based Program on Physical Activity and On-Task Behavior.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(12): 2086-2094, 2006. www.nemours.org/content/dam/nemours/www/filebox/service/preventive/nhps/pep/paon-taskbehavior.pdf

[25] Note that the Safe Routes to School movement to date has predominantly focused on active transportation to school of children in kindergarten through eighth grade.  As a result, there may be additional provisions that districts want to add in to address the active transportation needs and issues of high school students.

[26] Besser LM and Dannenberg AL. “Walking to Public Transit: Steps to Help Meet Physical Activity Recommendations.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29(4): 273–280, 2005.  http://198.246.98.21/healthyplaces/publications/besser_dannenberg.pdf

[27] Drake KM, Beach ML, Longacre MR, et al. “Influence of Sports, Physical Education, and Active Commuting to School on Adolescent Weight Status.” Pediatrics. 130(2): 29-304, 2012. US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General (HHS). Overweight and Obesity: Health Consequences. 2007. www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/calls/obesity/fact_consequences.html

[28] Martínez-Gómez D, Ruiz JR, Gómez-Martínez S, et al. “Active Commuting to School and Cognitive Performance in Adolescents: The AVENA Study.” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 165(4):300-305, 2010. http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=384475; Geier AB, Foster GD, Womble LG, et al. “The Relationship between Relative Weight and School Attendance among Elementary Schoolchildren.” Obesity. 15(8): 2157-2161, 2007. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2007.256/pdf; Davis CL and Cooper S. “Fitness, Fatness, Cognition, Behavior, and Academic Achievement among Overweight Children: Do Cross-Sectional Associations Correspond to Exercise Trial Outcomes?” Preventive Medicine. 52 (Supplement): S65-S69, 2011; Faulkner NH, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, et al. “Social, Educational, and Psychological Correlates of Weight Status in Adolescents.” Obesity Research. 9(1): 32-42, 2001.

[29] Gauderman JW, Avol E, Lurmann F, et al. “Childhood Asthma and Exposure to Traffic and Nitrogen Dioxide.” Epidemiology. 16(6): 737-743, 2005.

[30] Orenstein MR, Gutierrez NR, Thomas M, et al. Safe Routes to School Safety and Mobility Analysis. Berkeley, CA: University of California Traffic Safety Center, 2007. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/5455454c#page-2

[31]Goodyear S. “The Link between Kids Who Walk or Bike to School and Concentration.” The Atlantic Cities, February 5, 2013. www.theatlanticcities.com/commute/2013/02/kids-who-walk-or-bike-school-concentrate-better-study-shows/4585/  

[32] Staunton CE, Hubsmith D and Kallins W. “Promoting Safe Walking and Biking to School: the Marin County Success Story.” American Journal of Public Health, 93(9): 1431–1434, 2003. www.saferoutestoschools.org/Pressroom/American%20journal%20of%20public%20health.pdf

[33] See Drake et al., supra note 27.

[34] National Progress on Increasing Safe Bicycling and Walking to and from School. Safe Routes to School: 2007 State of the States Report. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2007. www.saferoutespartnership.org/sites/default/files/pdf/rpt_SRTSstates2007.pdf; Orenstein MR, Gutierrez N, Rice TM, et al. Safe Routes to School Safety and Mobility Analysis. UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center, for California DOT, 2007. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/5455454c

[35] Maizlish, N, Woodcock J, Co S, et al. Health Co-Benefits and Transportation-Related Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Bay Area: Technical Report. Richmond, CA: Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, California Department of Public Health, 2011. www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/CCDPHP/Documents/ITHIM_Technical_Report11-21-11.pdf

[36] Marshall JD, Wilson RD, Meyer KL, et al. “Vehicle Emissions during Children’s School Commuting: Impacts of Education Policy.” Environmental Science and Technology. 44(5): 1537-1543, 2010. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1021/es902932n

[37] Safe Routes to Schools Program Evaluation. Safe Routes to Schools Marin County, 2011. www.saferoutestoschools.org/documents/TAMSR2SProgramEvaluationwithAppendix-LowRes-112211.pdf; Staunton et al., supra note 29.

[38] See Cal. Educ. Sec. 44808, which immunizes schools and their employees except when the school provides transportation to and from school, the student is involved in school-sponsored activity, or the school “has otherwise specifically assumed such responsibility.”

[39] Subramanian R. Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes as a Leading Cause of Death in the United States, 2008 and 2009. US Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2012. www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811620.pdf

[40] de Hartog JJ, Boogaard H, Nijland H, et al. “Do the Health Benefits of Cycling Outweigh the Risks?” Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(8): 1109–1116, 2010. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920084/; Rojas-Rueda D, de Nazelle A, Tainio M, et al. “The Health Risks and Benefits of Cycling in Urban Environments Compared with Car Use: Health Impact Assessment Study.” British Medical Journal, 343: d4521, 2011. www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d4521#alternate; Hillman, M. “Cycling and the Promotion of Health.” PTRC 20th Summer Annual Meeting, Proceedings of Seminar B, 1992.  Located via:  Cavill N and Davis, A. “Cycling & Health: What’s the Evidence.” Cycling England, 2007. www.cycle-helmets.com/cycling_and_health.pdf; Pucher J, Dijkstra L. “Promoting Safe walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health: Lessons from The Netherlands and Germany.” Am J Public Health.93(9):1509-16, 2003; Frank LD, Engelke P. “Multiple Impacts of the Built Environment on Public Health: Walkable Places and the Exposure to Air Pollution.” Int Regional Sci Rev., 28(2):193-216, 2005.

[41] See National School Lunch Program Fact Sheet. Food and Nutrition Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 2012. www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Lunch/AboutLunch/NSLPFactSheet.pdf

[42] Turner C, McClure R, Nixon J, et al. “Community-Based Programmes to Prevent Pedestrian Injuries in Children 0–14 Years: A Systematic Review.” Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 11 (4): 231– 237, 2004; Childhood Injury Prevention Interventions: Skills Training Programs. Harborview Injury Prevention & Research Center, University of Washington. http://depts.washington.edu/hiprc/practices/topic/pedestrians/skills.html; Duperrex OJM, Bunn F and Roberts R. “Safety Education of Pedestrians for Injury Prevention: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials.” British Medical Journal, 324(7346): 1129, 2002. www.bmj.com/content/324/7346/1129.pdf%2Bhtml

[43] SWOV Fact Sheet: Road Safety of Children in the Netherlands. Leidschendam, the Netherlands: SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, 2009. www.swov.nl/rapport/Factsheets/UK/FS_Children.pdf; Dragutinovic N and Twisk D. The Effectiveness of Road Safety Education: A Literature Review. Leidschendam, the Netherlands: SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, 2006. www.swov.nl/rapport/R-2006-06.pdf

[44] Jo Salmon, Louisa Salmon, David A. Crawford, Clare Hume, and Anna Timperio (2007) Associations Among Individual, Social, and Environmental Barriers and Children's Walking or Cycling to School. American Journal of Health Promotion: November/December 2007, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 107-113.

[45] For example, in states such as Louisiana and Oklahoma, school districts are likely to be immune for endorsing SRTS programs, but are not likely to be immune for setting up or running such programs. See Johnson v. Orleans Parish Sch. Bd., 975 So.2d 698, 711 (La.App. 4 Cir. 2008)(distinguishing between discretionary and operational actions); Gary v. Meche, 626 So.2d 901, 905 (La.App. 3 Cir. 1993); Nguyen v. State, 788 P.2d 962, 964 (Okla. 1990). For more information about the extent of governmental immunity for school districts in your state, consult with the attorney for your school district.

[46] Georgia, for example, has extremely broad immunity for school districts and school officials.  See Griswold v. Collins, 318 Ga.App. 556, 558 (Ga. App. 2012); 734Kaylor v. Rome City Sch. Dist., 600 S.E.2d 723, 726 (Ga. App. 2004); McDowell v. Smith, 678 S.E.2d 922 (Ga. 2009).

[47]The scope of governmental immunity in Oklahoma is fairly narrow. See Robinson v. City of Bartlesville Bd. of Educ., 700 P.2d 1013, 1015-16 (Okla. 1985).

[48] See, e.g., Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 161.148(4) (2012); Mass. Gen. Laws ch.71, § 38R (2012); Utah Code § 53A-3-410 (2012); Tex. Educ. Code § 22.0835 (2012).

[49] See, e.g., N.J. Rev. Stat. § 18A:6-7.1 (2012); Cal. Educ. Code §§ 35021.1, 35021.3 (2012).

[50] Note that in so called “home rule” states, school districts are granted broad authority. See, e.g., Ind. Code § 20-26-3-1 (2012) (granting school districts “all the powers needed for the[ir] effective operation”).

[51] See, e.g., Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 161.148(4) (2012) (“all volunteers who have contact with students on a regularly scheduled or continuing basis”); Mass. Gen. Laws ch.71, § 38R (2012) (volunteers who will have “direct and unmonitored contact with children”); N.J. Rev. Stat. § 18A:6-7.1 (2012) (volunteers who have “regular contact with pupils”); Utah Code § 53A-3-410 (2012) (volunteers who will have “significant unsupervised access to a student”).

[52] See, e.g., Tex. Educ. Code § 22.0835 (2012).

[53] See, e.g., Utah Code § 53A-3-410 (2012) (fingerprinting is mandatory for all new volunteers and optional for existing volunteers; fingerprints are kept on file and the school district is notified of any new offenses involving sex, drugs, alcohol, or offenses against the person); Cal. Educ. Code § 35021.3 (2012) (defining a voluntary process whereby districts create a registry of before- and after-school program volunteers; prospective volunteers must provide fingerprints to the state Department of Justice, and, in some instances, the Federal Bureau of Investigation).

[54] See, e.g., Tex. Educ. Code § 22.0835 (2012).

[55] Bicycle Trains. SRTS Guide. http://guide.saferoutesinfo.org/walking_school_bus/bicycle_trains.cfm

[56] See Walking and Bicycling Audits. SRTS Guide. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC). http://guide.saferoutesinfo.org/engineering/walking_and_bicycling_audits.cfm

[57] See Adult School Crossing Guard Guidelines. National Center for Safe Routes to School, Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center. http://guide.saferoutesinfo.org/crossing_guard/pdf/crossing_guard_guidelines_web.pdf

[58] See AAA School Safety Patrol Operations Manual. Traffic Safety Programs, AAA. www.aaa.com/aaa/049/PublicAffairs/SSPManual.pdf

[59] National Surveillance of Asthma: United States, 2001-2010. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. 2003. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_03/sr03_035.pdf

[60] Brandt et al., supra note 11.

[61] Healthy School Environment Resources: Indoor Air Quality. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2012. http://cfpub.epa.gov/schools/top_sub.cfm?t_id=41&s_id=4; Hall R, Hardin T and Ellis R. School Indoor Air Quality: Best Management Practices Manual. Office of Environmental Health and Safety, Indoor Air Quality Program and Washington State Department of Health. 2003. www.doh.wa.gov/Portals/1/Documents/Pubs/333-044.pdf; Parent’s Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Albany, NY: Healthy Schools Network, Inc. 2012. www.healthyschools.org/downloads/IAQ_Guide.pdf  

[62] Clean School Bus. National Clean Diesel Campaign, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). http://epa.gov/cleanschoolbus/antiidling.htm

[63] Solomon GM, Campbell TR, Ruderman Feuer G, et al. No Breathing in the Aisles: Diesel Exhaust Inside School Buses. Natural Resources Defense Council Coalition for Clean Air. 2001. www.nrdc.org/air/transportation/schoolbus/schoolbus.pdf

[64] See Kassel R and Baily D. Cleaning Up Today’s Dirty Diesels: Retrofitting and Replacing Heavy-Duty Vehicles in the Coming Decade. Natural Resources Defense Council. 2005. www.nrdc.org/air/transportation/retrofit/retrofit.pdf

[65] See School Bus No Idling Policy. Asthma Regional Council of New England (hereinafter, ARC). http://asthmaregionalcouncil.org/uploads/IAQ/ModelNoIdlingPolicy.pdf

[66] Id.

[67] New York City: Bicycle Parking Needs. City of New York, Department of City Planning Transportation Division, 1999. www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/pdf/transportation/td_fullbicycleparking.pdf; Healy I and Wine J. Bike Easy: Evaluation of Bicycle Parking in the French Quarter.  New Orleans: A Bike Easy Project. 2011. http://prc.tulane.edu/uploads/BIke-Easy-FQ-Bike-Parking-Full-Report-031512-1350925328.pdf

[68] Digest of Education Statistics: 2011. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, 2011. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d11/ch_2.asp

[69] Salvesen D and Hervey P. Good Schools – Good Neighborhoods. CURS Report No. 2003.03. Center for Urban and Regional Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2003. http://curs.unc.edu/curs-pdf-downloads/recentlyreleased/goodschoolsreport.pdf

[70] Martin S, Lee S and Lowry R. “National Prevalence and Correlates of Walking and Bicycling to School.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(2): 98-105, 2007. See also U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. KidsWalk: Then and Now – Barriers and Solutions. 2008. www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/kidswalk/then_and_now.htm


Users of this document should be aware that every funding source has different requirements governing the appropriate use of their funds. Under U.S. law, no federal funds are permitted to be used for lobbying or to influence, directly or indirectly, specific pieces of pending or proposed legislation at the federal, state, or local levels. Organizations should consult appropriate legal counsel to ensure compliance with all rules, regulations, and restrictions of any funding sources.