Limits on Government Power over Private Property

Limits on Government Power over Private Property

A 50-State Analysis of Takings Law

Many obesity prevention strategies involve changing the way land is used in a neighborhood to provide families with easier access to healthy food and physical activity. Most local governments have a great deal of power to regulate the use of private property. But the U.S. Constitution and some state laws place important constraints on ”takings,” the government’s acquisition of private property for public use.

ChangeLab Solutions commissioned Professors Lynn Blais and Gerald Torres of the University of Texas Law School to develop a comprehensive federal and 50-state analysis of how takings law might apply to some of the land use strategies local jurisdictions are pursuing in their efforts to prevent obesity.

Professors Blais and Torres found that by and large, state takings laws set more limits on government land use power than federal takings law. This means that it is important for advocates and government officials to be aware of the takings law in their state if they are exploring obesity prevention policies that involve (1) the forced sale of private land to the government for public use (“eminent domain”), or (2) regulations that severely limit or dictate how private property owners may use their land.

The report by Professors Blais and Torres is divided into several parts:

Takings Law: A Primer for Public Health Advocates: This fact sheet summarizes key information from the report.
 
Promoting Healthy Communities through Land Use Initiatives: Federal Limits on Regulatory Takings of Property, and Promoting Healthy Communities through Land Use Initiatives: Federal Limits on Physical Taking of Property for Public Use: These memos explain the two strands of federal takings law.
 
Land Use Initiatives to Prevent Childhood Obesity and Potential Obstacles from State Takings Laws (State Overview Memo): This memo provides basic information about state takings law and should be read before any of the individual state analyses.
 
Individual state analyses: These are state-specific analyses of how takings law affects the ability of local governments to improve land use for public health. The State Overview Memo should be read before any of the individual state analyses.
 
These memos are designed to inform lawyers and advocates who are exploring obesity prevention strategies related to land use. They are not a substitute for consultation with an in-state lawyer, and they do not reflect changes in the law that postdates their creation.

 

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PDF icon Takings Law: A Primer for Public Health Advocates183.64 KB
PDF icon Federal Limits on Physical Taking of Property for Public Use (9/10)206.37 KB
PDF icon Federal Limits on Regulatory Takings of Property (9/10)243.51 KB
PDF icon AK - State Takings Analysis (9/10)162.57 KB
PDF icon AL - State Takings Analysis (9/10)168.59 KB
PDF icon AR - State Takings Analysis (9/10)174.11 KB
PDF icon AZ - State Takings Analysis (9/10)158.27 KB
PDF icon CA - State Takings Analysis (9/10)177.39 KB
PDF icon CO - State Takings Analysis (9/10)171.74 KB
PDF icon CT - State Takings Analysis (9/10)178.19 KB
PDF icon DC - State Takings Analysis (9/10)159.93 KB
PDF icon DE - State Takings Analysis (9/10)160.95 KB
PDF icon FL - State Takings Analysis (9/10)194.94 KB
PDF icon GA - State Takings Analysis (9/10)166.11 KB
PDF icon HI - State Takings Analysis (9/10)158.13 KB
PDF icon IA - State Takings Analysis (9/10)174.96 KB
PDF icon ID - State Takings Analysis (9/10)175.48 KB
PDF icon IL - State Takings Analysis (9/10)183.3 KB
PDF icon IN - State Takings Analysis (9/10)169.29 KB
PDF icon KS - State Takings Analysis (9/10)167.52 KB
PDF icon KY - State Takings Analysis (9/10)164.57 KB
PDF icon LA - State Takings Analysis (9/10)173.52 KB
PDF icon MA - State Takings Analysis (9/10)169.73 KB
PDF icon MD - State Takings Analysis (9/10)165.44 KB
PDF icon ME - State Takings Analysis (9/10)162.53 KB
PDF icon MI - State Takings Analysis (9/10)172.54 KB
PDF icon MN - State Takings Analysis (9/10)173.04 KB
PDF icon MO - State Takings Analysis (9/10)170.75 KB
PDF icon MS - State Takings Analysis (9/10)180.96 KB
PDF icon MT - State Takings Analysis (9/10)168.68 KB
PDF icon NC - State Takings Analysis (9/10)171.92 KB
PDF icon ND - State Takings Analysis (9/10)165.09 KB
PDF icon NE - State Takings Analysis (9/10)163.62 KB
PDF icon NH - State Takings Analysis (9/10)167.91 KB
PDF icon NJ - State Takings Analysis (9/10)180.08 KB
PDF icon NM - State Takings Analysis (9/10)178.91 KB
PDF icon NV - State Takings Analysis (9/10)169.97 KB
PDF icon NY - State Takings Analysis (9/10)179.44 KB
PDF icon OH - State Takings Analysis (9/10)166.51 KB
PDF icon OK - State Takings Analysis (9/10)164.34 KB
PDF icon OR - State Takings Analysis (9/10)170.56 KB
PDF icon PA - State Takings Analysis (9/10)177.22 KB
PDF icon RI - State Takings Analysis (9/10)168.34 KB
PDF icon SC - State Takings Analysis (9/10)153.24 KB
PDF icon SD - State Takings Analysis (9/10)156.07 KB
PDF icon TN - State Takings Analysis (9/10)151.96 KB
PDF icon TX - State Takings Analysis (9/10)166.17 KB
PDF icon UT - State Takings Analysis (9/10)161.2 KB
PDF icon VA - State Takings Analysis (9/10)150.88 KB
PDF icon VT - State Takings Analysis (9/10)149.3 KB
PDF icon WA - State Takings Analysis (9/10)154.28 KB
PDF icon WI - State Takings Analysis (9/10)152.53 KB
PDF icon WV - State Takings Analysis (9/10)153.44 KB
PDF icon WY - State Takings Analysis (9/10)152.9 KB